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Virtual events continue to fill gaps as in-person meetings are being planned

Prof. Bob Hutkins, PhD, University of Nebraska – Lincoln, USA

For scientists, annual meetings provide coveted opportunities to hear about the latest scientific advances from expert researchers, and they are where students and trainees get to present their research, often for the first time. Of course, meeting and socializing with colleagues, both new and old, during breaks and evening sessions is also an important part of these conferences.

Yet over the past two years, most occasions to meet face-to-face were canceled. Virtual meetings became the new normal and, even though a poor substitute for in-person gatherings, provided opportunities to connect and share emerging science. As we anticipate being together again in person – hopefully for 2022 meetings – take note of three upcoming conferences to fill the gap. Each of these feature meetings are related to the gut microbiome, diet, and health.

(1) In October, the Agriculture and Health Summit: Cultivating Gut Health at the Crossroads of Food & Medicine is a FREE three-day virtual conference that brings together a unique combination of researchers, industry leaders and thought leaders from the biomedical and agricultural sectors for important conversations about the future of human health. The event will provide a rare opportunity for individuals with diverse areas of expertise to discuss opportunities and challenges in creating ‘foods for health’ through the gut microbiome, working toward solutions in nutrition and medicine. More information can be found here. Among the presenters are ISAPP Executive Science Officer, Mary Ellen Sanders, and board members, Dan Merenstein and Bob Hutkins.

 

(2) Then in November, a Nature-sponsored online conference called Reshaping the Microbiome through Nutrition will be held. According to the website, “this conference will bring together researchers working on the microbiome and nutrition to discuss how our microbiota use and transform dietary components, and how these nutrients and their products influence host health throughout life, including effects on development and infectious and chronic diseases. A central theme of the meeting will be how diet and dietary supplements could be harnessed to manipulate the microbiome with the aim of maintaining health and treating disease”More information is found here.

(3) Another meeting in November is organized across ten centers/institutes at the NIH and the Office of Dietary Supplements and the Office of Nutrition Research. This two-day conference November 5 and 8, titled Precision Probiotic Therapies—Challenges and Opportunities, features a Keynote address by Prof. Jeff Gordon, from the Washington University School of Medicine. ISAPP president Prof. Dan Merenstein, Georgetown University School of Medicine, is also presenting. To register for this FREE meeting, see here.

 

In this current era, interest in how diet (including probiotics, prebiotics, and fermented foods) influences the microbiome and affects human and animal health has never been greater, as is evident by these and other similarly-themed conferences.

ISAPP is planning its next annual by-invitation meeting, to be held in person.

 

The Human Mycobiome: An ISAPP mini-symposium

ISAPP announces an open registration mini-symposium on the human mycobiome.

Although the contribution of the intestinal microbiome in human physiology is well-studied, the specific role of intestinal fungi, the gut mycobiome, is not well understood. Yet they may play an important role in shaping host development and health. For example, the evidence that fungi are involved in development of chronic inflammatory diseases is building. Further, a healthy gut microbiome is likely a major line of defense against the detrimental spread of fungi from the intestinal environment to other parts of the body, or unwanted establishment of fungi in the gut itself. This mini-symposium features six short lectures that will explore different aspects of the human mycobiome, including research, clinical and industry perspectives.

Mini-symposium schedule, July 1, 2021

10:00-10:05 AM EDT Welcome. Eamonn Quigley/Mary Ellen Sanders ISAPP
10:05-10:25 Overview of the human mycobiome. Pauline Scanlan University College Cork, Ireland
10:25-10:45

 

Characterizing gut mycobiota from healthy adults: conventional vs vegetarian diets. Heather Hallen-Adams University of Nebraska – Lincoln
10:45-11:05 Gut mycobiota in immunity and IBD. Iliyan D Iliev Cornell University, Ithaca, NY
11:05-11:25 Mycobiome of infants in a type-1 diabetes prospective cohort.  Joseph Petrosino Baylor College of Medicine

Houston, TX

11:25-11:35 A clinician’s perspective on gut fungi. Eamonn Quigley Houston Methodist,

Weill Cornell Medical College, TX

11:35-11:40 Importance of the mycobiome: industry perspective. Frank Schuren TNO, Microbiology & Systems Biology, The Netherlands
11:40-noon Q&A

The webinar was held on July 1, 2021 — see the recording here:

I have IBS – should I have my microbiome tested?

By Prof.  Eamonn Quigley, MD. The Methodist Hospital and Weill Cornell School of Medicine, Houston

I am a gastroenterologist and specialize in what is referred to as “neurogastroenterology” – a rather grandiose term to refer to those problems that arise from disturbances in the muscles or nerves of the gut or in the communications between the brain and the gut.  Yes, the gut has its own nervous system – as elaborate as the spinal cord – which facilitates the two-way communication between the brain and gut.

The most common conditions that I deal with are termed functional gastrointestinal disorders (FGIDs) among which irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) is the most frequent. I have cared for IBS sufferers and been involved in IBS research for decades. But while much progress has been made, IBS continues to be a frustrating problem for many sufferers. No, it will not kill you, but it sure can interfere with your quality of life. Dietary changes, attention to life-style issues (including stress) and some medications can help but they do not help all sufferers all of the time. It is no wonder, therefore, that sufferers look elsewhere for relief. Because, symptoms are commonly triggered by food, there are a host of websites and practitioners offering “food allergy” testing even though there is minimal evidence that food allergy (which is a real problem, causes quite different symptoms and can be fatal) has anything to do with IBS. Nevertheless, sufferers pay hundreds of dollars out of pocket to have these worthless tests performed.

Now as I sit in clinic I am confronted by a new phenomenon – “microbiome testing”. I cringe with despair when a patient hands me pages of results of their stool microbiome analysis. Has their hard-earned money been well spent? The simple answer is NO! Let me explain. First, our knowledge of the “normal” microbiome is still in evolution so we can’t yet define what is abnormal – unless it is grossly abnormal. Second, we have learned that many factors, including diet, medications and even bowel habit can influence the microbiome.  These factors more than your underlying IBS may determine your microbiome test results.  Third, while a variety of abnormalities have been described in the microbiome in IBS sufferers, they have not been consistent. Someday we may identify a microbiome signature that diagnoses IBS or some IBS subgroups – we, simply, are not there yet. Indeed, our group, together with researchers in Ireland and the UK, are currently involved in a large study looking at diet, microbiome and other markers in an attempt to unravel these relationships in IBS.

There have been a lot of exciting developments in microbiome research over the past few years. One that has caused a lot of excitement comes from research studies showing that the microbiome can communicate with the brain (the microbiome-gut-brain axis). It is not too great a leap of faith to imagine how such communications could disturb the flow of signals between and brain and the gut and result in symptoms that typify IBS. We also know that some antibiotics and probiotics can help IBS sufferers. Indeed, about 10% of IBS suffers can date the onset of their symptoms to an episode of gastroenteritis (so-called post-infection IBS). All of this makes it likely that the microbiome has a role in IBS; what we do not know is exactly how. Is the issue a change in the microbiome? Is it how we react to our microbiome? Is it the bacteria themselves or something that they produce? Could our microbiome pattern predict what treatments we will respond to? These are fascinating and important questions which are being actively studied. In the meantime, I feel that microbiome testing in IBS (unless conducted as part of a research study) is not helpful.

If you are interested in our research study please contact me at equigley@nullhoustonmethodist.org

 

Related Reading:

Microbiome analysis: hype or helpful?

A clinician’s guide to microbiome testing

Here’s the poop on getting your gut microbiome analyzed

 

blog foodomics image

Global FoodOmics: A Crowd-Sourced Window Into Microbes In Our Foods

January 25, 2018. By Mary Ellen Sanders, PhD , Dairy & Food Culture Technologies

Among the factors under our control, diet may be the most important determinant of our gut microbiota. Observations from the American Gut Project suggest that foods containing live microbes increase fecal bacterial diversity, which is generally associated with a healthy gut.

An initiative, Global FoodOmics, was launched earlier this year at the University of California San Diego under the auspices of the American Gut Project to learn more about bacteria in foods and the small molecules they produce. Dr. Julia Gauglitz is the project manager. Food samples (over 2000 have been collected to date) have been analyzed for their small molecule composition and will be tested by 16S rDNA sequencing to determine the bacterial species present. Although currently in its early stages, the aim for this project is to inventory the vast different foods consumed by people around the world.

Although many fermented foods (beer, bread, wine, kefir, many cheeses and others) rely on yeast or molds as fermentation or ripening agents, this project will aim to detect bacterial DNA, but these DNA approaches cannot distinguish between life and dead bacteria.  Labels and other descriptors accompanying submitted food samples may help determine if the species detected are likely to be alive. Fermented foods that retain live bacteria are more likely to influence our colonizing microbiota.

The small molecules being assayed are not limited to the ones produced by microbes. They may be due to microbial growth in the food (by food fermentation microbes or perhaps by spoilage or food poisoning microbes), may be innate to the food, or may be intentional or incidental (e.g., pesticides) additives to foods.

The intent is to turn Global FoodOmics into a crowd-sourced project. It will join the American Gut Project as an avenue for citizens to directly participate in science and enable the project to make all of the data publically available to other researchers and clinicians.

It is notable that this project is not the first attempt to understand the microbial components of food. Food microbiologists for decades have been assaying foods for microbes used to produce food, responsible for food spoilage and linked to food poisonings.  Recently, Prof. Bob Hutkins, University of Nebraska, on behalf of the International Scientific Association for Probiotics and Prebiotics (ISAPP) and with support from the National Dairy Council, embarked on a project to learn the state of knowledge about levels of live microbes in fermented foods. They dug into the published literature and emerged with “A survey of live microorganisms in fermented foods”, In Press at Food Microbiology. This paper gives us a summary of what is known about populations of live microbes in fermented foods, information that is very useful for people wanting to add live microbes to their diet.

Another effort to understand microbes in foods is the Consortium for Sequencing the Food Supply Chain, a partnership between IBM Research and Mars Inc. This project, focused on food safety, aims to develop a baseline of normal microbial communities in foods.

Both Global FoodOmics and the Consortium for Sequencing the Food Supply Chain will leverage modern DNA sequencing technologies to allow us better understand the microbes associated with foods. Global FoodOmics is the first project to understand the microbes and molecules in foods, by pairing small molecule metabolomics measurements with rDNA sequencing.

probiotics for healthy people infographic

ISAPP releases new infographic: “Probiotics for Healthy People”

November 20, 2017. Probiotics are most commonly studied with for populations with a specific condition—frequent examples include diarrhea, irritable bowel syndrome, and pouchitis. But what kind of evidence exists on probiotics for healthy people?

A new ISAPP infographic gives an overview of what we know about the use of probiotics in healthy individuals. The resource was developed by ISAPP’s Science Translation Committee and approved by  the ISAPP board of directors.

“Studying health benefits in healthy people is a challenge. But there is evidence that probiotics can provide dietary management of some digestive conditions that don’t reach the level of diagnosed disease as well as prevent of some common infectious diseases and. These, and other benefits, are of value to healthy people,” says ISAPP’s Executive Science Officer, Dr. Mary Ellen Sanders. The new infographic  emphasizes it is not necessary to take probiotics to be in good health, but they may serve as a useful addition to a healthy lifestyle.

Research investigating how probiotics can affect healthy individuals through their microbiomes is ongoing in laboratories around the world, and ISAPP continues to track the latest findings.