The following information is available for clinicians (including gastroenterologists, general practitioners, and dietitians) to learn about the science of probiotics, prebiotics, and gut microbiota as they apply to clinical practice.

Many of these materials were created by third parties. Please note that ISAPP bears no responsibility for the accuracy of these materials and/or the consequences of their use.

Evidence on probiotics and prebiotics by indication

Multiple indications

Probiotics for human use

This review in Nutrition Bulletin, co-authored by ISAPP scientists, covers the definition and concept of probiotics and compiles evidence for different health benefits of probiotics.


Clinical Guide to Probiotic Products Available in USAClinical Guide to Probiotic Products Available in Canada

These guides, which list the level of evidence for various probiotic products by indication, are useful tools for healthcare professionals. They are created by the independent organization AEProbio through industry-funded non-restricted educational grants. They are also available as free mobile downloads: US version: Google Play and the App Store; Canadian version: App Store and Google Play


Targeting gut flora to treat and prevent disease

This article from Journal of Family Practice online helps translate the evidence, providing evidence-based recommendations for use of probiotics or prebiotics for IBS, IBD, antibiotic-associated diarrhea, acute infectious diarrhea, traveler’s diarrhea, eczema, and diabetes.


WGO Global Guidelines on Probiotics and Prebiotics

These guidelines from World Gastroenterology Organisation (WGO) compile evidence for the use of probiotics for various indications. Note especially Tables 8 and 9, which list strains associated with graded evidence for gastrointestinal benefits.


WGO Handbook on Gut Microbes

This handbook from World Gastroenterology Organisation (WGO) includes 15 chapters by global experts, covering gut microbiota and its role in health and disease, as well as evidence for the use of probiotics and prebiotics.


The expanding health benefits of prebiotics and probiotics

This continuing education activity from Pharmacy Times, published in February 2018, features Dan Merenstein, MD, explaining prebiotic and probiotic evidence for different indications.


Navigating the world of probiotics: Helping patients make good choices

In this webinar from April 2018, Dan Merenstein, MD, and Mary Ellen Sanders, PhD, served as faculty for a CME-eligible webinar sponsored by Medscape on how healthcare professionals can help patients choose the most suitable probiotic for their needs. Accessing this webinar requires a login.

Antibiotic-associated diarrhea

ISAPP Position Statement on Clinical Use of Probiotics to Prevent Antibiotic-Associated Diarrheoa in the UK [PDF]

This ISAPP resource was developed in response to concerns about the consequences of frequent antibiotic prescriptions in UK hospitals, and covers evidence for co-prescribing probiotics with antibiotics in order to prevent antibiotic-associated diarrhoea and Clostridium difficile-associated diarrhoea.


Use of probiotics for antibiotic-associated diarrhea

Using an illustrative case, this resource from Journal of Family Practice lays out the rationale for administration of probiotics for the prevention of antibiotic-associated diarrhea.

Lactose digestion

Scientific Opinion on the substantiation of health claims related to live yoghurt cultures and improved lactose digestion

This is a regulatory scientific opinion document from the European Food Safety Authority (EFSA) on the use of yogurt cultures to manage symptoms of lactose intolerance.

Gastrointestinal health

Probiotics for gastrointestinal diseases

This is an UpToDate clinical decision support resource for healthcare providers and patients, authored by R. Balfour Sartor, MD. It covers evidence for the use of probiotics. Accessing this article requires a subscription.


Systematic review: probiotics in the management of lower gastrointestinal symptoms in clinical practice — an evidence-based international guide

This systematic review in Alimentary Pharmacology & Therapeutics, endorsed by the European Society for Primary Care Gastroenterology, aims to give clinicians “a practical reference guide on the role of specified probiotics in managing particular lower gastrointestinal symptoms/problems.”


Review article: the management of acute gastroenteritis in children

This review in Alimentary Pharmacology & Therapeutics covers the management of acute gastroenteritis in children: it incorporates evidence published since the previous 2008 European guidelines on the management of acute gastroenteritis in children, which were developed by te European Society for Paediatric Gastroenterology, Hepatology and Nutrition (ESPGHAN) and the European Society of Paediatric Infectious Disease (ESPID).

Management of Pediatric Ulcerative Colitis: Joint ECCO and ESPGHAN Evidence-based Consensus Guidelines

The result of a joint effort of the European Crohn’s and Colitis Organization (ECCO) and the European Society for Paediatric Gastroenterology, Hepatology, and Nutrition (ESPGHAN), this document summarizes clinical guidelines for the management of pediatric ulcerative colitis, including appropriate use of probiotics. It represents the consensus of 27 experts in pediatric IBD.

Evidence on diet and gut microbiota

May 2019 Gut Microbiota for Health World Summit: Session Recordings

These recordings cover the sessions of a recent scientific conference focused on gut microbiota, diet, and health. The recordings are freely accessible but require a login. Available through March 2021. Learning objectives for the conference are as follows:

  • Understand the role of diet-microbiota interactions underlying human health and disease.
  • Describe current evidence regarding dietary components (such as dietary fiber and fermented foods) and exercise and their influence on the human gut microbiome.
  • Describe current understanding of metabolites produced by the gut microbiome and their link to human health and disease.
  • Apply current understanding of probiotics for the management of adult and pediatric gastrointestinal disorders to clinical practice.

General information for patients or consumers

Probiotics: A Consumer Guide for Making Smart Choices [PDF]

This ISAPP-created resource covers the definition and use of probiotics and lists some key points for consumers who wish to choose a probiotic that meets their needs.


Prebiotics: A Consumer Guide for Making Smart Choices [PDF]

This ISAPP-created resource covers the definition and uses of prebiotics and answers gives an overview of the benefits of prebiotics.


Irritable Bowel Syndrome (IBS): What is it, what causes it and can I do anything about it?

This educational program for the general public, developed by the World Gastroenterology Organisation, is a webcast that gives an overview of IBS and evidence for probiotic benefits.