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Harmonized Probiotic Guidelines to be discussed at Codex Alimentarius meeting November 24 – 29

By Mary Ellen Sanders PhD, Executive Science Officer, ISAPP

In 2017, the International Probiotics Association (IPA) proposed that Codex Alimentarius consider the topic of global harmonization of probiotics, and Argentina offered to propose an approach. The final proposal developed by Argentina is here.

This set into motion activities among many stakeholders that led to a final proposal, to be discussed at the Joint FAO/WHO Food Standards Programme, Codex Committee on Nutrition and Foods For Special Dietary Uses, Forty-first Session, Dusseldorf, Germany, being held 24 – 29 November 2019. The agenda for this meeting includes “Harmonized Probiotic Guidelines for Use in Foods and Dietary Supplements”, agenda item #11.

ISAPP has long championed the need for the term ‘probiotic’ to be used on product labels only when the scientifically recognized definition is met. In June 2018, ISAPP convened a large group of industry and academic scientists, chaired by Profs. Seppo Salminen (Finland), Yuan Kun Lee (Singapore), and Gabriel Vinderola (Argentina), to discuss global harmonization. Prof. Vinderola later served as a member of the Argentinian committee that developed the proposal now under consideration. From this discussion group, a white paper “ISAPP position statement on minimum criteria for harmonizing global regulatory approaches for probiotics in foods and supplements” was prepared, describing the minimum criteria for use of the term ‘probiotic’. These outputs frame an overall position of ISAPP on this issue: any global regulations should impose only the minimum criteria necessary to ensure truthful product labeling.

Issues such as requiring specific safety tests, stipulating specific in vitro or animal studies, or expecting manufacturers to automatically re-conduct clinical trials when changing delivery matrices, will serve to inhibit innovation and impose expensive requirements that may not be necessary.

Although probiotics can be considered unique in that they are live microorganisms, their use as dietary ingredients is not substantively different from other ingredients. Every ingredient needs specific analytical techniques and has specific requirements for identity, purity, and stability. So if truth in labeling can be assured regarding proper commercial use of the term ‘probiotic’, there may not be a need for carved-out global regulations on probiotics.

The position of the United States on this agenda item is: “The United States is still reviewing the discussion paper and has not formed a position at this time. We note however that in our view this work is lower in priority than proposed work on nutrient profiles.”

Reflections on a career in probiotic science, from ISAPP founding board member Prof. Gregor Reid

Past President and founding board member Prof. Gregor Reid is stepping down from the ISAPP Board in Banff in June 2020, as he retires from Western University and his Endowed Chair position at Lawson Health Research Institute the following month. In this blog post, he shares thoughts on his career and the opportunities for his replacement and for others to continue probiotic research.

By Gregor Reid BSc (Hons), PhD, MBA, ARM CCM, Dr HS, FCAHS, FRSC

A mere blue dot. A pinhead, if that. But it’s us, all we have been and all we will be – for a while at least. The planet Earth.

Its magnificence is there for all to see.

Creative Commons Earth Illustration, Pixabay

Creative Commons Earth Illustration, by Pixabay

I’ve been fortunate to have visited over 60 of the countries on this majestic globe. One of the perks of being a scientist. And for those who know me well, I’ve taken my camera and my music with me on the journey. In this blog post, I’ll share some pieces of both and how they form part of who we are and what we study.

Across the vast surface of our planet, and within it, there are countless microbes. As life emerges from the surface, we shouldn’t be surprised that microbes climb on board. Whether plants, honey bees, fish, birds, lions, humans, microbes accompany each.

Photo by Andrew Pitek. Used with permission.

Just being human is a guest house1.

Understandably, since some of these microbes can be deadly to humans, our ancestors had to find ways to stop them. Whether plague, diphtheria, smallpox, influenza, wound infections, or other fatal diseases. And so, the marvels of vaccination and antibiotics were born.

Arguably, these miraculous interventions also brought complacency as a societal side-effect, despite the warnings of people like Alexander Fleming. The greatest possibility of evil in self-medication is the use of too small doses so that instead of clearing up infection the microbes are educated to resist penicillin2.

We all but ignored the collateral damage, pacified by label warnings of diarrhea and nausea until Clostridium difficile woke us from our slumber. When the antibiotics stopped working, we went out into left field and started using human poop! Too ridiculous to work, until it worked. Really well.

We’re running through the dark, and that’s how it starts. Don’t know what you’re doing to me. And it might be getting better3.

Prior to that radical step, an awakening had occurred through people like Metchnikoff but more recently Savage, Tannock, McKay, Costerton, Bruce, and others who led us to the microbes that have been helping us all along. In the case of Andrew Bruce, he wondered if replenishment of lactobacilli into the urogenital tract of women might help prevent recurrence of infection. But in the late seventies and early eighties, the collective ‘we’ wasn’t ready to listen.

You came like a comet, blazing your trail. Too high, too far, too soon, you saw the whole of the moon4.

In 2001 in the city of Cordoba, Argentina, a group of experts were assembled and asked to come up with a definition for probiotics5. This helped set a path that we remain on today.

But a definition is nothing without application and acceptance and stewardship. It requires passage to voices across the world. That is why the International Scientific Association for Probiotics and Prebiotics (ISAPP) has been a mountain overseeing the field. Led so wonderfully by Mary Ellen Sanders, Glenn Gibson and other outstanding scientists, it is symbolic of the climb many have had to make.

If you understand or if you don’t. If you believe, or if you doubt. There’s a universal justice, and the eyes of truth are always watching you6.

There’s always gonna be another mountain. I’m always gonna wanna make it move. Always gonna be an uphill battle. Sometimes I’m gonna have to lose. Ain’t about how fast I get there, ain’t about what’s waiting on the other side. It’s the climb7.

It has certainly been a climb. For each of us. Cynicism too often outweighing optimism. Hype outweighing truth. Profit ahead of science. Ignorance over understanding. But together, we have reiterated the message, the importance of studies and data. Not in experimental mice or test tubes, but in the ultimate host where benefits are sought.

The road has taught me to fight our corner, but also that there is a magnificence and mystery in this planet we share. From the birth of a baby to the honey bee that pollinates our crops, to the salmon that crosses from salt to fresh water and back. All from the Mother we share8.

I’ve been fortunate that my career has allowed me to pursue my dream, although it’s never quite as it seems9. One song sums it up for me: While I’m alive I’ll make tiny changes to earth10.

I hope that I have made some tiny changes, especially in the poorest regions of Africa where the probiotic fermented foods of Western Heads East and Yoba-for-life are impacting lives of the young and old. Such inspiring people!

I think if each person is able to make tiny changes, we can leave this life better than whence we came.

As retirement looms, it’s funny how the same question is asked repeatedly. “So, what will you do now?” My answer is I’m moving to America. It’s an empty threat11. Actually, I think back to second year of my honours’ degree at Glasgow University and second year of my PhD at Massey University when my answer was “I don’t know for sure, but I’ll do my best.” I think we need to follow the voice inside us and hope that tomorrow brings wellness and satisfaction.

I won’t fill my walls with framed degrees or awards. Those are for photo albums of a blessed past. They were made possible because of hard work, an incredible family, and a set of friends and talented colleagues too numerous to name.

I’m proud of my publications and students, and hope they inspire others. But I only have two hands12, and we need the Big Ideas for you and me13. So, the laboratory, supplies, offices, and amazing staff and students at the St. Joseph’s Hospital site in London, Ontario await a new direction and someone to carry the fire14. For whoever is my successor, I will wish that tomorrow brings another day, another ray of hope15 and that he or she remembers you only get what you give16, and you only get one shot, do not miss your chance17.

Scientific endeavour, an open mind, supportive colleagues, and taking chances all make for an exciting career. I followed a path barely walked. It ostracized me from many in mainstream microbiology. When grant panel reviewers don’t believe your work has value or is needed, life gets challenging. So, you follow your heart, you lean on those who agree with you, and publish on peripheral topics to stay noticed. Then you smile when your critics actually start studying beneficial microbes and probiotics, and understand what you’ve been saying all along.

Probiotics are more than science. They encompass a philosophy, an anthropological perspective, a bridge between past and future. They are a mountain range of possibilities. As researchers we are still people. We should never shut out the disciplines and sounds and voices that surround us. We need to awaken them like adding medium to a dried Lactobacillus and watching it grow.

The possibilities are just as endless as when I started. But they need younger hands with the latest and future technical skill-sets to pursue the big ideas and to be a steward in defending probiotic science and excellence. These are indeed exciting times.

In closing, I hope you enjoy the music selection — and the irony of some of the album names.

As for me heading into the sunset of this journey: Let the music play. I just wanna dance the night away18.

References (unlike any you’ve seen before)

  1. Coldplay. 2017. Kaleidoscope, from A Head Full of Dreams.
  2. Alexander Fleming. 1945. In, The New York Times.
  3. British Sea Power. 2017. What You’re Doing, from Let the Dancers Inherit the Party.
  4. The Waterboys. 1985. The Whole Of The Moon, from This is the Sea.
  5. Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations and World Health Organization. 2001. Probiotics in Food. http://www.fao.org/3/a-a0512e.pdf
  6. Enigma. 1993. The Cross Of Changes from album of the same name.
  7. Miley Cyrus. 2009. The Climb, from Hannah Montana: The Movie.
  8. Chvrches. 2013. The Mother We Share, from The Bones of What You Believe.
  9. The Cranberries. 1992. Dreams, from Everybody Else is Doing It.
  10. Frightened Rabbit. 2008. Head Rolls Off, from Midnight Organ Fight.
  11. Kathleen Edwards. 2012. Empty Threat, from Voyageur.
  12. Avicii. 2013. Wake Me Up, from True.
  13. The Boxer Rebellion. 2016. Big Ideas, from Ocean by Ocean.
  14. Editors. 2010. No Sound But The Wind, from the Twilight Saga: New Moon.
  15. Bill Nelson. 1983. Another Day, Another Ray of Hope, from Chimera.
  16. New Radicals. 1998. You Get What You Give, from Maybe You’ve Been Brainwashed Too.
  17. Eminem. 2002. Lose Yourself, from the movie 8 Mile.
  18. Barry White. 1975. Let The Music Play, from the album of the same name.

For information on the position of Director of Human Microbiome and Probiotics at the Lawson Health Research Institute, contact Dr. David Hill: David.hill@nulllawsonresearch.com

new_website

ISAPP launches new website, furthering its mission of educating stakeholders on probiotic and prebiotic science

The ISAPP Board of Directors is pleased to announce the launch of the organization’s new website, which has now gone live at ISAPPscience.org. The website has been redesigned for easier navigation by different stakeholder groups—scientists, consumers, clinicians, and students—enabling ISAPP to continue with its mission of providing accurate, science-based information to its readers about probiotics, prebiotics and fermented foods.

ISAPP Executive Science Officer Dr. Mary Ellen Sanders says, “The scientists comprising the ISAPP Board of Directors realize that consumers and clinicians often struggle to find science-based information on probiotics and prebiotics. ISAPP is working to fill this gap, and we have streamlined our website to help individuals from each of these groups easily find the information they’re looking for.”

At the ISAPP annual meeting held earlier this year, advancing probiotic and prebiotic evidence to a variety of audiences was the topic of a special ‘springboard discussion’ session.

“Probiotic and prebiotic science has made significant progress in the past few decades,” says Sanders, “but this progress has not always been communicated effectively or correctly to those outside the scientific community.” Sanders continues, “Some studies describe an expanding array of health benefits but other studies show the limits of these interventions. Our goal is to counter the abundance of misinformation and be the go-to source of accurate materials about probiotics and prebiotics.”

ISAPP is building its capacity to produce more science-focused educational materials tailored to different audiences. Infographics, some of which are translated into 10 different languages, short videos and targeted blogs are featured on the new website. In coming weeks, ISAPP will make additional resources available on the website, including frequently asked questions about probiotics and prebiotics, and a downloadable white paper for clinicians. Signing up for the ISAPP newsletter is the best way to stay up to date on educational materials being added to the website.

2018 Annual Meeting Report Now Available

The meeting report for the Annual Meeting June 5-7th 2018 ISAPP in Singapore is now available, featuring overviews of the speakers and discussion group conclusions.

Two days of plenary talks focused on the latest science featuring prebiotic and probiotic use in: pediatrics, oral health, allergy immunotherapy, the gut microbiome throughout life, synbiotics, liver disease, honey bee health, chronic gut disorders, and more. The meeting also featured an interesting talk about the changes coming in the nomenclature of the genus Lactobacillus.

The plenary, open sessions were followed by a Discussion Forum on June 7th for invited experts and Industry Advisory Committee Members. The discussion groups focused on:

  • Harmonizing Global Probiotic and Prebiotic Food/Supplement Regulation
  • Fermented Foods for Health: East Meets West
  • Potential Value of Probiotics and Prebiotics to Treat or Prevent Serious Medical Issues in Developing Countries
  • Prebiotics as Ingredients: How Foods, Fibres and Delivery Methods Influence Functionality

Finally, there were over 70 posters presented at the meeting featuring the latest prebiotic and probiotic research from around the world.

Slides and abstracts for the meeting can be found on the ISAPP website under the “Annual Meetings” tab, available to meeting participants only.

ISAPP to host live webinar: Microbial metabolism associated with health

Update April 16, 2018:  Recording and slides from the webinar available here.

The International Scientific Association for Probiotics and Prebiotics (ISAPP), in partnership with the International Life Sciences Institute (ILSI) Europe’s Prebiotics and Functional Foods Task Forces, has jointly organized a free webinar, titled Microbial Metabolism Associated with Health. The webinar runs April 12th, 2018 at 15:00 CET, and will highlight recent activities of both ISAPP and ILSI on the beneficial aspects of gut microbial fermentation. The specific focus will be on gut microbiota functions, the effects of the intestinal microbiota on selected nutrients and non-nutrients, and the health benefits of fermented foods. Scientists from both academia and industry may find the webinar of interest. Sign up here.

Webinar participants will learn the status of the science making the links between live microorganisms in the diet and host health. The host gut microbiota is a key factor in determining gut function, nutritional status, biochemical transformations of food and the overall impact on health. This diverse microbial community inhabiting the human gut assists in food metabolism and contributes to the bio-availability of nutrients and non-nutrients; it also has an extensive metabolic repertoire that complements mammalian enzymes in the liver and gut mucosa. Microbial metabolism is an important factor to consider when discussing the management of host health and conditions such as obesity and metabolic syndrome.

The enhanced nutritional and functional properties of fermented foods are being increasingly recognized; not only do microbes transform the substrates and form bioactive or bioavailable end-products, but also, fermented foods contain live microorganisms genetically similar to the strains found in probiotics. The webinar will cover the possible interactions of fermented foods and beverages with the gut microbiota, and potential links to health.

The 90-minute live webinar will be hosted on StreamGo, and will include a question and answer period at the end. There is no cost; however, participants are required to register online beforehand.

Speakers:

  • Effects of the Intestinal Microbiota on Selected Dietary Components
    a) Introduction and Background to the Activity (Dr. Colette Shortt, Johnson & Johnson, UK)
    b) Impact of Intestinal Metabolism and Findings (Prof. Ian Rowland, University of Reading, UK)
  • Health Benefits of Fermented Foods: Microbiota and Beyond (Prof. Robert Hutkins, University of Nebraska, USA)

 

Publications from ISAPP and ILSI-Europe related to the webinar topics:

probiotics webinar

Two Free Webinars on Probiotics!

Both webinars – eligible for continuing education credit – on probiotics involving ISAPP board members are scheduled. The first is scheduled for Thursday, March 15th 11am-noon CST. It  features Mary Ellen Sanders, PhD on the topic of “Be a Pre and Probiotic Pro” and is sponsored by General Mills Bell Institute of Health and Nutrition. Register here.

The second, “Navigating the World of Probiotics: Helping Patients Make Good Choices,” is under development by Medscape. Both Prof. Dan Merenstein MD and Mary Ellen Sanders, PhD will speak during this 30 min webinar. It will take place April 17. Register here.

fermented foods

Fermented foods, health and ISAPP

November 30, 2017. By Mary Ellen Sanders PhD, Executive Science Officer, ISAPP

It seems that fermented foods have arrived. Just within the community of ISAPP board members, fermented foods and their importance to health have been a topic of great interest.  The idea that adding foods containing live microbes may be sound dietary advice has been reflected in many venues and formats, as seen here:

  • Bob Hutkins:
    • Presented “Health benefits of fermented dairy foods: microbiota and beyond” at 5th YINI Summit (Danone Institute) Fermented Foods and Health: The Intersection of Gut Microbiota and Fermentation Microbes on October 18, 2017.
    • Will convene a discussion group at ISAPP 2018 in Singapore “Taking advantage of fermented foods for health.”
    • Submitted a paper on counts of live microbes in fermented foods “A survey of live microorganisms in fermented foods”
    • Along with lead author Maria Marco and others summarized a discussion group on fermented foods convened at the 2016 meeting of ISAPP in Turku, reflected in this popular Current Opijnions in Biotechnology article, Health Benefits of fermented foods: microbiota and beyond.
  • Gregor Reid:
  • Mary Ellen Sanders
  • Seppo Salminen:
  • ISAPP board of directors
    • In 2015, published several comments to the US Dietary Guidelines Advisory Committee, presenting the scientific rational for fermented foods to be part of the US dietary guidelines. See here and here (and for a comment on prebiotic inclusion in dietary guidelines, see here)
    • Oversaw the ISAPP Science Translation committee, which published a consumer-friendly infographic and related materials on Fermented Foods.

ISAPP will continue to work to get this topic recognized by nutrition professionals globally.