ISAPP publishes new paper on “Human Use of Probiotics”

ISAPP, working with the British publication Nutrition Bulletin, published an open access paper on “Human Use of Probiotics”.

The paper provides an overview of probiotics in the 21st Century, summarizes health conditions where actionable evidence on probiotic use exists, considers fermented food in the context of probiotics, and provides some regulatory and marketplace perspective.

“Most reviews covering health benefits of probiotics focus on specific conditions in depth. In this paper we try to include all benefits with compelling evidence,” Sanders says.

Access the paper here.

2018 Annual Meeting Report Now Available

The meeting report for the Annual Meeting June 5-7th 2018 ISAPP in Singapore is now available, featuring overviews of the speakers and discussion group conclusions.

Two days of plenary talks focused on the latest science featuring prebiotic and probiotic use in: pediatrics, oral health, allergy immunotherapy, the gut microbiome throughout life, synbiotics, liver disease, honey bee health, chronic gut disorders, and more. The meeting also featured an interesting talk about the changes coming in the nomenclature of the genus Lactobacillus.

The plenary, open sessions were followed by a Discussion Forum on June 7th for invited experts and Industry Advisory Committee Members. The discussion groups focused on:

  • Harmonizing Global Probiotic and Prebiotic Food/Supplement Regulation
  • Fermented Foods for Health: East Meets West
  • Potential Value of Probiotics and Prebiotics to Treat or Prevent Serious Medical Issues in Developing Countries
  • Prebiotics as Ingredients: How Foods, Fibres and Delivery Methods Influence Functionality

Finally, there were over 70 posters presented at the meeting featuring the latest prebiotic and probiotic research from around the world.

Slides and abstracts for the meeting can be found on the ISAPP website under the “Annual Meetings” tab, available to meeting participants only.

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ISAPP conducts webinar on definitions in microbiome space for ILSI-North America Gut Microbiome Committee

Dr. Mary Ellen Sanders presented a webinar July 23, 2018 – covering basic definitions of microbiota-mediated terminology – to the ILSI-North America Gut Microbiome Committee, which you can listen to here. The objective was to update the committee about terms with clear and actionable consensus definitions in the microbiome space. ISAPP is committed to proper use of terms such as ‘probiotics’ and ‘prebiotics’, as evidenced by the consensus panels it has convened (see here and here) on these topics. Definitions of some newly emerging terms such as postbiotic, abiotic, and probioceuticals are less clear.

Some issues covered in this webinar include comparison with historic definitions, minimum criteria for commercial probiotic and prebiotic products, contrasting probiotic food with fermented food, and a brief discussion of imminent taxonomy changes for the genus, Lactobacillus.

The webinar is now available here.

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Welcome Seppo Salminen – ISAPP’s New President

An interview with Prof. Seppo Salminen

ISAPP President 2018-2021

 

1) What are your goals as the next president of ISAPP? 

My goal is to work together with the board and the members to advance excellence in the science of probiotics and prebiotics and to share research and conclusions with as wide an audience as possible. It is also my goal to leverage ISAPP’s scientific  expertise to work with organizations to promote  evidence-based applications of probiotics and prebiotics to advance health and well-being of people.

2) What do you hope to see the organization accomplish during your tenure?

ISAPP is engaged now in North America, Europe and Asia so maybe we can be really be global and reach out to South America and  connect with researchers in Africa as we have done with Professor Reid earlier. I would like to work toward common goals with more industrial, scientific and regulatory experts from different parts of the world.

3) What changes do you foresee in the field of probiotics and prebiotics in the next few years?

 I foresee rapid development in probiotics and prebiotics. There will be novel microorganisms developed and novel sources of prebiotics and this direction leads to challenges in safety evaluation and efficacy demonstration  as well as communication of the results to larger audiences.

4) How did you originally become involved in ISAPP?

I was originally invited to one ISAPP meeting, then to the next one, then to the third one and at the end was invited to be a member of the board, which I considered a special honour!

5) Which ISAPP meeting was your favorite so far?

They all have been excellent, but some I remember (each for different reasons) are the ones in Barcelona, New York, Chicago and Berkeley – and now Singapore. Of course, the one in Turku, Finland as well – when you help organize a meeting like that you certainly remember even on a minute-by-minute basis.

Thank you Prof. Salminen and welcome!

2018_Singpaore

ISAPP’s First Meeting in Asia is a Huge Success

June 5-7th 2018 ISAPP held it’s first Asian meeting in Singapore. This open registration meeting was a huge success with over 240 attendees from 34 countries.

Two days of plenary talks focused on the latest science featuring prebiotic and probiotic use in: pediatrics, oral health, allergy immunotherapy, the gut microbiome throughout life, synbiotics, liver disease, honey bee health, chronic gut disorders, and more. The meeting also featured an interesting talk about the changes coming in the nomenclature of the genus Lactobaccilus.

The plenary, open sessions were followed by a Discussion Forum on June 7th for invited experts and Industry Members. The discussion groups focused on:

  • Harmonizing Global Probiotic and Prebiotic Food/Supplement Regulation
  • Fermented Foods for Health: East Meets West
  • Potential Value of Probiotics and Prebiotics to Treat or Prevent Serious Medical Issues in Developing Countries
  • Prebiotics as Ingredients: How Foods, Fibres and Delivery Methods Influence Functionality

Finally, there were over 70 posters presented at the meeting featuring the latest prebiotic and probiotic research from around the world.

Next year, ISAPP will be hosting an invite-only meeting in Antwerp, Belgium – May 14-16, 2019. To attend this meeting, join ISAPP as an Industry Member.

      

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ISAPP’s Outgoing President: Karen Scott

Dr. Karen Scott of the Rowett Institute of the University of Aberdeen has served as the ISAPP President for the last three years. During her time as President, ISAPP has seen some incredible growth and accomplishments, and the organization is so grateful for her leadership.

Last year, under Karen’s leadership, ISAPP produced a prebiotic consensus panel paper, which remains one of the highest cited papers in nature reviews gastroenterology and hepatology.

In addition, over the last three years the Science Translation Committee has produced nine infographics, four videos, monthly blog posts, and a monthly newsletter focused on disseminating clinical and consumer information on probiotics and prebiotics.

Karen led three successful ISAPP Annual Meetings – Turku in 2016, Chicago in 2017, and ISAPP’s first meeting in Asia which took place in Singapore in 2018. All of these meetings followed her acting as local host for the 2014 ISAPP meeting in Aberdeen.

ISAPP’s mission to educate resulted in numerous outreach activities over the last three years including continuing education opportunities, webinars, the USP expert panel on probiotics, and regulator engagements. In terms of advancing the science, under Karen’s leadership ISAPP has published 21 peer-reviewed articles on probiotics and prebiotics.

Finally, industry involvement in ISAPP has remained strong and steady during Karen’s term, with 40-45 industry members from around the world. These industry members support ISAPP’s activities and participate in the annual meeting each year to hear about the latest probiotic and prebiotic science available.

Thank you so much Karen for your dedication and hard work to advance scientific excellence in probiotics and prebiotics.

medscape_webinar

Medscape Webinar on Probiotics – Now Available!

“Navigating the world of probiotics: Helping  patients make good choices”

This 30-min CME activity, which took place on April 17th, by Medscape is now available online https://www.medscape.org/viewarticle/897109 The webinar features Prof. Dan Merenstein MD and Mary Ellen Sanders PhD – both ISAPP Board Members.

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Free Webinar: Why is everybody talking about gut microbiota?

Coming up on Thursday, June 28th ISAPP Board Member Professor Glenn Gibson will be featured in a free webinar discussing gut microbiota. Hosted by the British Nutrition Foundation, the webinar will examine what we know about gut microbiota and what remains to be explored. Research on gut microbiota has indicated the gut has a role in metabolism, immunity, and more!

The British Nutrition Foundation says “This free webinar aims to increase understanding of the gut-brain axis and the evidence for the role of gut microbiota in metabolic health and immunity. We are absolutely delighted to have world renowned experts speaking in our programme including:

  • Professor Ian Rowland (University of Reading)
  • Professor Ted Dinan (University College Cork)
  • Professor Glenn Gibson (University of Reading) “

 
Find out more information and register for the webinar here.

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ISAPP board members share expertise in probiotic workshop in Buenos Aires

ISAPP board members, Prof. Seppo Salminen and Dr. Mary Ellen Sanders, along with over a dozen other renowned experts from the Southern Cone, Europe and Canada, participated in a workshop in Buenos Aires organized by Ricardo Weill of Instituto Danone Cono Sur April 26-27, 2018. The purpose of the workshop was two-fold. One goal was to share current science about probiotics with each other and with Codex Alimentarius and regulators from Argentina, to encourage a science-based approach to global probiotic standards that may end up with a draft of guidelines to be considered by the Codex Alimentarius late this year. Secondly, the intent is to convert each of the presentation topics into a chapter for a Spanish and English-language book to be published in the fall.

Two experts, Drs. Gabriel Vinderola and Rocio Martin, who participated in this meeting, will also serve as invited experts to the 2018 ISAPP meeting in Singapore June 5-6.

The concepts advanced by ISAPP in its papers on the scope and use of the term ‘probiotic’ and on the concept of core benefits and its regulatory implications were featured at this meeting. “The meeting was organized by Instituto Danone but it was devoid of all commercial content,” said Salminen.

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ISAPP Releases 2017 Annual Report

The 2017 Annual Report on ISAPP’s activities to advance scientific excellence in probiotics and prebiotics is now available. The Report covers the 2017 Annual Meeting in Chicago IL, as well as the publications, webinars, meetings and other activities accomplished during the past year. Finally, ISAPP is grateful to the 43 Industry Advisory Committee Members who support ISAPP’s endeavors. See more here.

pharmacist continuing ed

Continuing Education Opportunity on Probiotics and Prebiotics Now Available for Pharmacists

ISAPP Board member and Professor of Medicine, Dan Merenstein MD, served as faculty for a new continuing education activity on probiotics and prebiotics. “The Expanding Health Benefits of Prebiotics and Probiotics” was developed by Pharmacy Times and is available free of charge here (registration is required to log in to access the materials).  This concise, practice-oriented review summarizes evidence for probiotic interventions for clinical conditions and is an excellent summary for all healthcare practitioners.

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Medscape Webinar on Probiotics April 17

Prof. Dan Merenstein MD and Mary Ellen Sanders, PhD will present a 30 min webinar titled, “Navigating the World of Probiotics: Helping Patients Make Good Choices” April 17 at 12:30 ET*. Developed by Medscape, the target audience is medical professionals. Dr. Sanders will provide basic information about choosing probiotics and Prof. Merenstein will discuss the strength of evidence for different clinical applications for probiotics. The webinar is free, but you must register with Medscape to sign up. Register here.

*An earlier announcement by Medscape listed the wrong time zone.

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Updated Clinical Guide to Probiotics Now Available

Want some guidance on knowing which probiotic products have been tested for which clinical benefits, and understand the level of evidence supporting those benefits? Check out the 2018 versions of Clinical Guide to Probiotic Products Available in USA and Clinical Guide to Probiotic Products Available in Canada. Currently, these are the only 2 geographical regions covered by this initiative, although they are considering expanding to other regions. This guide is updated annually. Some changes for 2018 include addition of new indications ‘Mood and affect’, ‘Liver health’, ‘Weight management’ (Canada) and ‘Seasonal allergies’ and ‘Eczema/Dermatitis-Adult’ (United States). Evidence is reviewed independently by six academic experts and graded as Level I (highest), II or III. A grade of Level I requires evidence from at least one properly designed randomized human trial. This guide is produced by the Alliance for Education on Probiotics, and is an industry funded effort (see industry sponsors for US and Canadian versions).

ISAPP to host live webinar: Microbial metabolism associated with health

Update April 16, 2018:  Recording and slides from the webinar available here.

The International Scientific Association for Probiotics and Prebiotics (ISAPP), in partnership with the International Life Sciences Institute (ILSI) Europe’s Prebiotics and Functional Foods Task Forces, has jointly organized a free webinar, titled Microbial Metabolism Associated with Health. The webinar runs April 12th, 2018 at 15:00 CET, and will highlight recent activities of both ISAPP and ILSI on the beneficial aspects of gut microbial fermentation. The specific focus will be on gut microbiota functions, the effects of the intestinal microbiota on selected nutrients and non-nutrients, and the health benefits of fermented foods. Scientists from both academia and industry may find the webinar of interest. Sign up here.

Webinar participants will learn the status of the science making the links between live microorganisms in the diet and host health. The host gut microbiota is a key factor in determining gut function, nutritional status, biochemical transformations of food and the overall impact on health. This diverse microbial community inhabiting the human gut assists in food metabolism and contributes to the bio-availability of nutrients and non-nutrients; it also has an extensive metabolic repertoire that complements mammalian enzymes in the liver and gut mucosa. Microbial metabolism is an important factor to consider when discussing the management of host health and conditions such as obesity and metabolic syndrome.

The enhanced nutritional and functional properties of fermented foods are being increasingly recognized; not only do microbes transform the substrates and form bioactive or bioavailable end-products, but also, fermented foods contain live microorganisms genetically similar to the strains found in probiotics. The webinar will cover the possible interactions of fermented foods and beverages with the gut microbiota, and potential links to health.

The 90-minute live webinar will be hosted on StreamGo, and will include a question and answer period at the end. There is no cost; however, participants are required to register online beforehand.

Speakers:

  • Effects of the Intestinal Microbiota on Selected Dietary Components
    a) Introduction and Background to the Activity (Dr. Colette Shortt, Johnson & Johnson, UK)
    b) Impact of Intestinal Metabolism and Findings (Prof. Ian Rowland, University of Reading, UK)
  • Health Benefits of Fermented Foods: Microbiota and Beyond (Prof. Robert Hutkins, University of Nebraska, USA)

 

Publications from ISAPP and ILSI-Europe related to the webinar topics:

probiotics webinar

Two Free Webinars on Probiotics!

Both webinars – eligible for continuing education credit – on probiotics involving ISAPP board members are scheduled. The first is scheduled for Thursday, March 15th 11am-noon CST. It  features Mary Ellen Sanders, PhD on the topic of “Be a Pre and Probiotic Pro” and is sponsored by General Mills Bell Institute of Health and Nutrition. Register here.

The second, “Navigating the World of Probiotics: Helping Patients Make Good Choices,” is under development by Medscape. Both Prof. Dan Merenstein MD and Mary Ellen Sanders, PhD will speak during this 30 min webinar. It will take place April 17. Register here.

cleveland clinic logo

Cleveland Clinic’s Center for Microbiome and Human Health recruiting two new or experienced investigators

Take a look at the new opportunities available at the Cleveland Clinic’s Center for Microbiome and Human Health:

Microbial Culturing and Engineering Core Director  

Microbial Sequencing and Analytics Core Director

ISAPP BOARD MEMBERS TO PARTICIPATE IN PEDIATRIC PROBIOTIC CONFERENCE IN ITALY

ISAPP Board Members, Professors Michael Cabana MD MPH and Seppo Salminen PhD, will be participating in the 4th Annual Prebiotics and Probiotics in Pediatrics conference in Bari, Italy April 12-14, 2018. Prof. Cabana will be chairing a panel on colic and will discuss findings from a meta-analysis of L. reuteri as an intervention for colicThis meta-analysis, published December 2017, was the outcome of discussion groups convened at the 2014 and 2016 ISAPP meetings, both led by Prof. Cabana of University of California, San Francisco.

Prof. Salminen will share his decades of knowledge of probiotics, colonizing microbiota and pediatric applications in his presentation titled “Bacteriome and Friends.”

Don’t miss the 4th Annual Prebiotics and Probiotics in Pediatrics conference, which is a unique opportunity to meet major experts in the field while learning the most updated basic and clinical research on prebiotics and probiotics for the developing human. The three-day meeting will cover the major novelties in pediatric gastroenterology, obesity, allergy, nephrology, neonatology and the new scenario on gut-brain communication.

ISAPP RELEASES NEW INFOGRAPHIC: “PROBIOTICS: DISPELLING MYTHS”

How often do you hear information about probiotics that is just plain wrong? Too often write-ups on probiotics in blogs, websites, articles written by the lay press, and even sometimes in scientific journals is not true to the science. The latest ISAPP infographic corrects several common misconceptions about probiotic dose, sweetened probiotic yogurts, fermented foods, and more. In doing so, this infographic furthers ISAPP’s core values of stewardship, advancing the science and education.

This resource was developed by ISAPP’s Science Translation Committee and approved by  the ISAPP board of directors.

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ISAPP works to have evidence-based usage of probiotics to prevent antibiotic-associated diarrheoa implemented in UK

January 12, 2018. Antibiotics are amongst the most commonly prescribed drugs in UK hospitals. However, as well as treating infection they can cause disruption to the gastrointestinal microbiota. This can lead to the relatively common side-effect of antibiotic-associated diarrhoea (AAD) which often delays discharge. More concerning is that a disruption to the normal gut microbiota can lead to reduced resistance to opportunistic pathogens such as Clostridium difficile, leading to C. difficile infection, a potentially severe or fatal infection. Based on the available evidence, probiotics are a safe and effective adjunct to antibiotics to reduce the risk of developing AAD and for the primary prevention of CDAD. The International Scientific Association of Prebiotics and Probiotics has reviewed available data and supports several published assessments, which recommend probiotics as adjunctive therapy for prevention of AAD and CDAD.

This effort was led by Dr. Claire Merrifield BSc MBBS PhD, Speciality Registrar in General Practice, St. Mary’s Hospital, Imperial College Healthcare Trust, Imperial College London and Prof. Daniel Merenstein, MD, Department of Family Medicine, Georgetown University Medical Center and ISAPP Board Member and Treasurer.

Read full recommendation here, which will be sent to NICE and Public Health England.

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ISAPP Digs Deeper into Evidence on Probiotics for Colic with New Meta-Analysis

January 3, 2018.

Evidence exists for gut microbiota differences between infants with and without colic, with one probiotic strain of particular interest therapeutically for colicky infants: Lactobacillus reuteri DSM17938. Discussion groups convened at the 2014 and 2016 ISAPP meetings, both led by Prof. Michael Cabana MD MPH of University of California, San Francisco, and member of ISAPP’s board of directors, focused on the existing randomized, controlled trials and how they might inform medical recommendations.

The discussion group at the 2014 ISAPP meeting in Aberdeen Scotland resulted in a paper describing the individual patient data meta-analysis (IPDMA) protocol, which was published in BMJ Open.  The 2016 ISAPP meeting in Turku Finland culminated in the publication of this IPDMA in the journal Pediatrics: Lactobacillus reuteri to treat infant colic: a meta-analysis. Dr. Valerie Sung, Royal Children’s Hospital, The University of Melbourne and Murdoch Children’s Research Institute, was lead author of this paper, whose coauthors included a team of 11 other experts spanning three continents.

This high quality meta-analysis used individual patient data rather than group means to get a more accurate picture of the efficacy of the probiotic. The paper concluded that L. reuteri DSM17938 is effective and can be recommended for breastfed infants with colic. However, data are lacking for efficacy in formula-fed infants.

“Any single randomized clinical trial involves a great deal of time and resources from investigators, institutions and most importantly, patients. By working together, our team was able to combine data to learn more about the effects of L. reuteri DSM 17983 on the treatment of infant colic. This analysis is a great example of the power of close international collaboration by clinical investigators.”

Related:

Probiotics for Colic—Is the Gut Responsible for Infant Crying After All? (Open access through Jan 10, 2018)

https://www.mcri.edu.au/news/hope-parents-children-colic

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Fermented foods, health and ISAPP

November 30, 2017. By Mary Ellen Sanders PhD, Executive Science Officer, ISAPP

It seems that fermented foods have arrived. Just within the community of ISAPP board members, fermented foods and their importance to health have been a topic of great interest.  The idea that adding foods containing live microbes may be sound dietary advice has been reflected in many venues and formats, as seen here:

  • Bob Hutkins:
    • Presented “Health benefits of fermented dairy foods: microbiota and beyond” at 5th YINI Summit (Danone Institute) Fermented Foods and Health: The Intersection of Gut Microbiota and Fermentation Microbes on October 18, 2017.
    • Will convene a discussion group at ISAPP 2018 in Singapore “Taking advantage of fermented foods for health.”
    • Submitted a paper on counts of live microbes in fermented foods “A survey of live microorganisms in fermented foods”
    • Along with lead author Maria Marco and others summarized a discussion group on fermented foods convened at the 2016 meeting of ISAPP in Turku, reflected in this popular Current Opijnions in Biotechnology article, Health Benefits of fermented foods: microbiota and beyond.
  • Gregor Reid:
  • Mary Ellen Sanders
  • Seppo Salminen:
  • ISAPP board of directors
    • In 2015, published several comments to the US Dietary Guidelines Advisory Committee, presenting the scientific rational for fermented foods to be part of the US dietary guidelines. See here and here (and for a comment on prebiotic inclusion in dietary guidelines, see here)
    • Oversaw the ISAPP Science Translation committee, which published a consumer-friendly infographic and related materials on Fermented Foods.

ISAPP will continue to work to get this topic recognized by nutrition professionals globally.

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ISAPP releases new infographic: “Probiotics for Healthy People”

November 20, 2017. Probiotics are most commonly studied with for populations with a specific condition—frequent examples include diarrhea, irritable bowel syndrome, and pouchitis. But what kind of evidence exists on probiotics for healthy people?

A new ISAPP infographic gives an overview of what we know about the use of probiotics in healthy individuals. The resource was developed by ISAPP’s Science Translation Committee and approved by  the ISAPP board of directors.

“Studying health benefits in healthy people is a challenge. But there is evidence that probiotics can provide dietary management of some digestive conditions that don’t reach the level of diagnosed disease as well as prevent of some common infectious diseases and. These, and other benefits, are of value to healthy people,” says ISAPP’s Executive Science Officer, Dr. Mary Ellen Sanders. The new infographic  emphasizes it is not necessary to take probiotics to be in good health, but they may serve as a useful addition to a healthy lifestyle.

Research investigating how probiotics can affect healthy individuals through their microbiomes is ongoing in laboratories around the world, and ISAPP continues to track the latest findings.

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ISAPP Releases Series of Informational Videos on Probiotics and Health

October 10, 2017. Probiotics are a hot topic—an online search for information yields millions of hits. But how much of this easily-accessible information is scientifically accurate?

The clinicians and scientists serving on the ISAPP Board of Directors constantly receive questions about what’s true when it comes to probiotics and prebiotics. That’s why ISAPP decided to commission a series of four informational videos on probiotics. These videos were overseen by members of our board of directors without input from industry, but industry provided educational grants for their production.

The four new videos focus on these topics:

  • What is a probiotic?
  • Benefits of probiotics
  • Are all probiotics the same?
  • How to choose a probiotic

Watch for the videos to roll out during the month of October 2017! They’ll appear here on the ISAPP website video page.

With our mission to advance scientific excellence in probiotics and prebiotics, ISAPP is committed to helping consumers access science-based information on probiotics and prebiotics. To stay up to date on ISAPP news, please sign up for our monthly newsletter!

ISAPP 2018 Annual Meeting

Open-Registration ISAPP Conference to be held in Singapore, June 2018

The International Scientific Association for Probiotics and Prebiotics (ISAPP) is pleased to announce the opening of registration for its June 2018 international symposium in Singapore— and welcomes all interested participants around the world.

“Typically, ISAPP meetings are open only to invited experts and scientists from member companies,” says ISAPP Executive Science Officer Mary Ellen Sanders. “But in 2018, ISAPP features an open-registration event June 5th and 6th, welcoming all interested in the probiotic and prebiotic fields, including academicians, industry, regulators, and students.”

The 2018 conference will also mark the first time an ISAPP event has been hosted by a country in Asia. In choosing to congregate in Singapore, says Prof. Gregor Reid, the co-chair of this conference and featured speaker, “ISAPP recognizes the first-rate scientific expertise and growing markets in Asian countries.” He adds, “Our 2018 meeting in Singapore will allow us to better engage those in the Asian region while maintaining a top-notch program featuring global scientists.”

The theme of the conference is “Key Scientific Drivers Behind Probiotic and Prebiotic Applications.” Event’s speakers include global thought leaders in probiotic and prebiotic science, including Dr. Liping Zhao (China), Dr. Sarah Lebeer (Belgium), Dr. Glenn Gibson (UK), Dr. Seppo Salminen (Finland), and more. Plenary sessions will cover topics ranging from pediatric health and allergy to prebiotic mechanisms and strategies for health claim substantiation.

Invited experts and member company scientists will congregate on June 7th, after the main conference, for a “Day of Discussion” related to probiotics and prebiotics.

For more information about the conference and to register, see here.

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2017 Annual Meeting Report Now Available

September 9, 2017. The 2017 Annual Meeting Report is now available. Read about the meeting including summaries from six discussion groups:
· How do we fully leverage the well-established and documented benefits of probiotics and prebiotics for the benefit of patients and the public
· Synbiotics –what are the advantages?
· Probiotic molecular mechanisms of action: where are we today?
· Identifying biomarkers linking the composition and function of the microbiome to health status.
· Diet-based disruptions of the microbiome: are they important and could probiotics and prebiotics modulate?
· New paradigms for translating probiotic and microbiome science into health-promoting products. Gregor Reid